L.H.S. Trip to the Snailbeach Mine. 13 June 2016


Monday dawned, wet, miserable and with poor visibility. But never mind, we’re off down a mine. 11 intrepid members met up at Snailbeach Village Hall car park suitably kitted out in wellies and heavy weather gear. Here we were greeted by Peter Sheldrake, our guide for the visit. Peter has been involved with the mine and it’s preservation for over 20 years and was both entertaining and informative as he painted a picture of life at Snailbeach over the past 2000 years.

We began with a tour of the surface works, climbing up past the stabilised and landscaped spoil tips till we reached the restored Loco Shed. The landscaping is obviously succeeding as Joy, who knows about these things, identified a Spotted Orchid. Onwards and upwards then, past the Blacksmith’s (complete with working forge) and our first Pumping engine house. This dated from 1790 and served ‘George’s Shaft’ that reached a depth of 750 ft. Or 250 yards as for some arcane reason Snailbeach worked in yards!

At the visitors’ centre we collected our helmets and lamps and, Heigh Ho, it’s off to the mine we go.

After a climbing a track, passing the old reservoir, we reached ‘Perkins Level’. With a rattle of security keys Peter checked us into the Adit. A narrow, low and damp passage led us into the darkness where a series of high caverns had been carved out as the miners followed the seams of Barite, hard and often dangerous work. On Peter’s word we dowsed our lights to get a taste of the darkness they worked in. As they had to buy their own candles then, they used them very sparingly.

Returning back to the visitors’ centre the scale of the operation became evident as we passed powder stores, crushing and compressor houses, carpenters shops and offices. After handing back our helmets at the visitors’ centre a short film detailed some of the mine’s history. A lot to take in and for many of us a return trip is on the cards. We live in a beautifully green and peaceful area of the country. It is visits to such sites that remind us of how industrialised the landscape once was.

Steve Sherring













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A talk on Poyner’s of Ludlow a timewarp treasure, by Barbara Piller. June 15th 2016.

After the necessary business of the AGM, we heard from Barbara Piller about the book she ‘accidentally’ wrote after volunteering to research the history of Poyners, the well-known time-warp drapers in Broad Street, Ludlow. Although some were initially doubtful, even scathing, about the merits of such a book, it has been the Civic Society’s best seller and is on its 4th reprint.

There were five areas of research and Barbara gave an overview of each. Firstly the location, in what has been described as England’s loveliest street, but was not always so. Once it consisted of little booths until the Palmer’s Guild appointed Richard Sherman to build shops with living premises above, in the late medieval period. Poyners, No 7, was at that time a brewer’s selling ‘hott water’ i.e. beer. In later times it was owned by a Mr Jolly whose wife was Sarah Birdseye, of the American food company, and numerous others until it passed to the Poyners in 1917.

Secondly, Barbara researched the background of the drapery business, a widespread and wealthy one. Its importance and respectability shown by over a hundred members of the Drapery Association becoming Lord Mayors of London.

Researching the architecture of this unique setting, she enlisted some expert help and learned quite recently that all the buildings have cellars and that a tunnel has been discovered under the former rectory probably linking up with these buildings, with an as yet unknown exit.

Bodenhams was also included in her research, as Ernest Poyner was apprenticed there. His father Richard, son of an agricultural labourer, had a coffin making business in Raven Lane and married Elizabeth, a milliner. Ernest served his apprenticeship at Bodenhams and the two shops still have a good working relationship. Ernest’s wife Jane, a skilled milliner, was bequeathed money in 1917, which she immediately invested in the shop where she worked, precisely No 7, Broad St. When she and Ernest married in 1918 they moved into the rooms over the shop. Jane was very involved in civic affairs and was Lady Mayoress when her father-in-law was mayor. The Poyners bought £1325 worth of stock at the beginning of WW2, a very large order at the time, in anticipation of lack of supplies, not knowing it would have to last them for six years.

Their son Ernest bought No8 after WW2, which became the shop for babywear. Both shops are still owned by the Poyner family, but are now run by two sisters who are delighted that the babywear they stock includes the make worn by the two Royal babies, George and Charlotte. The shop is still internally as it was in 1917, but the wide stock is still very much kept up to date, witness the royal connection. But some very much more traditional items are to be found. The audience was intrigued to learn that liberty bodices can still be purchased, an item which aroused many reminiscences.

Altogether a very enjoyable trip down memory lane for many members.





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Brampton Bryan Hall tour 26th May 2016


Edward Harley talks to Mrs Fretton, an evacuee to Brampton Bryan Hall in WW2, during the LHS visit.

This was a visit to a stately house that felt like a proper family home. Highlights included:

Robert Harley’s, (Ist Earl of Oxford and Mortimer) jacket with a knife wound, a portrait of the Marquis de Guiscard who attempted to assassinate him with a penknife and the bent penknife.

Rare survivals of civil war armour knocked up by local blacksmiths. (Usually only the armour of the aristocracy survives).

Many fascinating documents from the archive including Brilliana’s letters and returns from the ‘South Sea Bubble’.

Some fine stained glass – (presumably from the pre-civil war church).

Admiral Rodney’s uniform and a painting of the ‘Battle of the Saints’ in which he prefigured Nelson’s tactics at Trafalgar. We were struck by the number of ships involved!

We were fortunate to hear the reminiscences of a wartime evacuee at school in the house who joined us for the tour.

We finished with a delicious tea in the old dairy. Our thanks to our generous hosts, the Harley family

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May Talk: Glyn Barratt on Iron Age Hill Forts

Glyn Barratt’s scholarly and well-illustrated talk on “Iron Age Forts” attracted an audience of around sixty people. Glyn Barratt is Chair of the Titterstone Clee Heritage Trust; originally a surveyor for the Ordnance Survey, he retrained as an archaeologist and has accrued over 40 years’ experience in the field, both in the UK and overseas. With fine archaeological detail from Titterstone Clee, and wider reference to other parts of the UK, European sites and even Australian culture, his talk focussed mainly on Shropshire.

We learned that about 3,000 hill forts have been identified in the British Isles, with particularly dense clusters of them in the Marches and in South-West England. Whilst they are primarily associated with the Iron Age, which occupied the years from around 900 BC to the advent of the Romans in Britain, perhaps this is misleading: the new technologies of first Bronze, then Iron working overlapped with the use of worked stone for tools, and it is likely there was continuity in the defensive and other uses of the hill-tops. Incidentally, during the Iron Age other new technologies were significant too, such as the invention of the potters’ wheel and the introduction of new farming techniques. Modern research suggests that rather than Britain being introduced to new ways by successive waves of invading Celtic hordes from the continent, it is more likely that changes were indigenous and spread slowly, resulting primarily from trading.

Hill forts gradually became more complex too, starting from the system of banks and ditches known as cross-dykes which probably date from the end of the Neolithic period, right through the Oppida of Roman times. The complex systems with many banks and ditches and staggered entrances, archetypally what the label “hill fort” conjures up for many of us, such as Bury Ditches, were constructed probably from about 400 BC onwards. Their earlier predecessors from nearer the beginning of the Iron Age were univallate (i.e. with just the one ditch and bank) with simple entrances. It is likely most ramparts were surmounted by wooden palisades, though there are some with the remains of dry-stone walls.

Glyn Barratt took us on a virtual tour of the major hill forts of our area, occupied during the Iron Age by a tribe named the Cornovii. Ratlinghope on the Long Mynd, the Caer Din ring in Clun Forest, the Roveries at Bishops Castle, one below Brown Clee, the huge area on Titterstone Clee, Caer Caradoc at Chapel Lawn, The Burrow at Craven Arms, Bury Ditches, Old Oswestry, the British Camp on Malvern, the Berth at Baschurch, Bury Walls at Shawbury … to see ground and aerial photography of these sites showed both how much they have in common and how much they differ. Because of the designation “hill fort” it is easy to assume their prime purpose is always defensive, but Glyn Barratt explored possible different interpretations of these features. Some, where the remains of huts have been identified in their interiors, may have been primarily settlements, with defining and possibly defensive boundaries (though it should be noted many hill forts have no immediate access to fresh water); others, a last retreat where those under attack could gather to defend themselves. Apparently siege warfare was pretty much unknown and disputes were likely to have been speedily resolved by fights between individual champions, hence the lack of water would not have signified.

If we visit a hill fort we will be well aware of how far one can see from these places and the defensive merits of their situation. Equally, though, by the same token, they are visible in the landscape. There may have been an element of show-of-strength to deter potential land-grabbers from even trying. Furthermore, many are situated on geographically distinctive features which may have functioned as navigational aids. Some of these places, including Clee Hill, are possible sites of Neolithic flint mines, so may well have lain on major trade routes since ancient times. It is even credible that such places may have had a spiritual importance for our ancestors. In a teasing link with our talk of two months ago, Glyn Barratt wondered if this might be why Clee Hill was still deemed significant enough to be referenced on the Mappa Mundi.

The audience had many questions answered and other tantalising queries were raised. Many archaeological studies of our hill forts have focussed on the obvious ramparts, with perhaps less work done on what lies within their boundaries. This was a talk to stimulate the imagination as well as assess the evidence, but above all, perhaps, to challenge the assumptions we make about our hill forts.




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National Mills Weekend 14th -15th May

Details of this annual event.




SAT. 14th and SUN. 15th MAY, 2016


This year 6 mills will be grinding corn in this area, 2 in Herefordshire, 2 in Worcestershire, 1 in Shropshire & 1 in Powys.

16 waterwheels will be turning.



Pontynys Mill, Longtown                                        HR2 0LU        NGR.:SO326288

10.00-4.30 Donations (to British Heart Foundation). Limited parking. 400 yards N of Crown Inn, Longtown, 1st turn left off road to Ewyas Harold; entrance on left. Extra parking on road near the bridge. A complete corn mill with large high-breast waterwheel and 4 pairs of stones, iron machinery with horizontal shaft.

Clenchers Mill, Eastnor                                          HR8 1RR        NGR.:SO731351

10.30-12.30 Free entry. Limited parking at ford, 100 yards away. 1½ miles S of Eastnor church, down Clenchers Mill Lane. 18th century timber-framed mill of Eastnor Castle Estate with restored water supply and working 1820 iron overshot waterwheel – one of the oldest in the county. Machinery of wood & iron drives a pair of millstones. The mill will be working at 11.00-11.45.

Rowlestone Mill, near Ewyas Harold                     HR2 0DP        NGR.:SO370270

10.00-6.00 Donations. Parking at village hall (by church) or in field near mill (weather permitting). Refreshments. The external overshot waterwheel will be turning, driving a Victorian apple scratter. Dramatic leat to mill from waterfall.

Home Farm, Dulas                                                   HR2 0HJ         NGR.:SO377294

2.00-5.00 Donations. Parking. ¾ mile NW of Ewyas Harold, on road to Longtown. A complete farm waterwheel, with drive to barn machinery and millstones, dating from the 1860s. A rare survival.

Fair Oak Farm, Bacton                                            HR2 0AT        NGR.:SO354321

2.00-6.00 Donations (to The Laurie Engel Fund for Birmingham Children’s Hospital) Limited parking. From Bacton church continue up hill for about a mile. At the T-junction the drive to the farm is straight ahead. Traditional horse-worked cider mill and press, still in original setting in barn, recently fully restored  to working condition. In the autumn of 2014 and 2015 the mill was again worked by a horse, after a gap of a hundred years. The cider makers will be racking Fair Oak cider made last year, which will be available for tasting, and mature cider will be available to buy.       


Arrow Mill, Kingsland                                             HR6 9AT        NGR.:SO437587

10.00-3.00 Free entry. Parking. At Arrow Green, 1½ miles S of Kingsland; entrance on W side of A4110 road, just N of bridge over River Arrow. A large 17th century building with a low breast-shot waterwheel – which will be turning. 19th cent. machinery, mostly of iron, and 3 pairs of stones. Special features are a machine for beating out clover seeds, and the drive to it, the original beaten-earth ground floor, old flour dresser, and an internal hop kiln. A very special mill – the waterwheel will be turning.

Hergest Mill, Kington                                             HR5 3EL         NGR.:SO288561

10.00-6.00 Free entry. Limited parking. ½ mile down Hergest Road from Kington church. 18th cent. building on ancient site with some later iron machinery to 4 pairs of stones. The two overshot wheels, the water supply, and the ancillary machines have all gone. Two sets of impressive machinery.

Olchon House Farm Mill, Llanveynoe, nr. Longtown HR2 0NT NGR.:SO307299

11.00-5.00 Donations (to Llanveynoe church) Parking. Tea available. Take the Craswall road from Longtown and turn left into the Olchon valley. After crossing the Olchon Brook, turn right. The mill is the first building on the right. Farm mill with overshot waterwheel and ring gear for millstones and barn machinery. Recently restored, mill will be grinding corn at intervals during the afternoon.

The Corn Mill, Michaelchurch Escley                   HR2 0JS        NGR.:SO315345

12.00-5.00. Donations (Save the Children). Limited parking. ¼ mile NW of Michaelchurch Escley church; where the Vowchurch road crosses the Escley Brook. A house conversion, but the main, mostly iron, machinery on the ground floor has been restored. The interior iron overshot waterwheel will be turning.

Crowards Mill, Eyton                                               HR6 0AD       NGR.:SO487604

2.00-5.00 Donations. Limited parking outside property. From Leominster take B4361 road towards Ludlow. Within ¾ mile turn left towards Eyton. Crowards Mill is the 1st building on left. Take track on left before mill. Park neatly along side of track. Converted mill with outside waterwheel; attractive garden. Accompanied access to internal machinery by request.

Yarpole Mill                                                              HR6 0BB         NGR.:SO470649

2.00-5.00 Free entry. Limited parking. In Yarpole village, NE of church, access via drive to Church House. Wellington boots required for crossing stream. Disused corn mill, stripped of waterwheel and much of machinery but otherwise unaltered. Impressive earthworks of former millpond and some 18th century gear in mill.

Archer’s Mill (Beanhouse Mill), now The Clover Mill Spa Retreat, Cradley WR13 5NR     NGR.:SO732488

2.00-6.00 Free entry. Parking. Refreshments & cakes available. Take the northward turning of the A4103 (Hereford-Worcester road), half a mile E of Stony Cross. After half a mile bear left, cross the stream, and turn left again along a track to the mill.

Late 19th cent corn mill, complete with waterwheel & 3 pairs of stones. Older generation of mill alongside is now house. Impressive building with waterwheel & machinery.

Newchurch Mill, Kinnersley                                  HR3 6QQ        NGR.:SO353506 3.00 Guided walk across fields from Newchurch Farm by owner (approx. 500yds. each way). Free entry. Parking. From Kinnersley take the A4112 road towards Leominster for 1 mile. Turn left towards Logaston and Woonton and the yard of Newchurch Farm is within ½ mile on the right hand side. Ruins of mill with millstones and fine early Kington-made overshot waterwheel formerly fed by large pond. Guided walk at 3.00pm. only.


Court of Noke Mill, nr. Staunton on Arrow        HR6 9HW       NGR.:SO372595

10.00.-4.00 Donations (Staunton church). Parking. N side of road, halfway between Shobdon and Lyonshall. Turn into lane on W side of house. Large car park within 50 yards on r.h.s. Visitors may also walk round the water gardens. These fed the waterwheel, which ground corn for prize Hereford cattle. The 19th century low breast-shot waterwheel and complex iron gear drove barn machinery and a pair of millstones. The waterwheel is being restored.

Staunton Mill, Staunton on Arrow                                    HR6 9HR       NGR.:SO369599

10.00-5.00 Donations (Staunton church repairs). Limited parking. Down hill from church. Once part of scheme of corn milling & irrigation. 18th century mill with mostly iron machinery. Two overshot waterwheels, each drove two pairs of stones. A fine mill with two sets of interesting machinery.

Mordiford Mill                                                          HR1 4LW       NGR.:SO572372

10.00–5.00 Free entry (Donations welcome towards restoration). Parking at rear. Do not park in yard in front of mill. Access is off B4224, 100 yards S of mill, on S side of Mordiford village. A tall stone corn mill on a steep site. The large overshot waterwheel drove iron machinery & 2 pairs of stones. Being restored to working condition. At present, no water supply; waterwheel under restoration.

Clodock Mill, near Longtown                                 HR2 0PD        NGR.:SO326273

Sat. 10.30-5.00; Sun. 2.00-5.00 Donations (Air Ambulance). Parking. Snacks available on Sat. & tea/coffee on Sun. Entrance by W side of bridge over River Monnow near Clodock church. Corn mill in lovely situation with mostly iron machinery; two pairs of stones. Nearby is a separate turbine, formerly generating electricity. . The large breast-shot waterwheel has been repaired recently, and mill will be grinding during the weekend.

SHROPSHIRE                      OPEN ON SUNDAY ONLY:

Rockhill Mill Greete                                                           SY8 3BT         NGR.:SO571721

10.00-4.00 Donations. Parking. 5 miles SE of Ludlow. Mill is on minor road, ½ mile SW of Whitton and 2 miles SE of Caynham. In the same family ownership since 1640, a restoration challenge of an empty corn mill building being brought back to full working condition. A second-hand waterwheel from Wales has been installed. The waterwheel will be turning.

Charlcotte Iron Furnace, Neenton                         WV16 6RR     NGR.:SO639861

11.00-4.00   Free entry. Limited parking. Down farm track, 1 mile S of Neenton. Early 18th century charcoal-fired blast furnace, originally powered by waterwheel. An amazing survival.

Wrickton Mill, Neenton                                          WV16 6RS      NGR.:SO642858

11.00-4.00 Free entry. Limited parking. Off short lane, 1½ miles S of Neenton. Fully restored complete corn mill with 3 pairs of stones. The waterwheel will be turning.

Clun Youth Hostel, Clun                                        SY7 8NY         NGR.:SO304813

2.00-5.00 Donations. Limited parking. Follow signs in Clun to Youth Hostel, which is on lane to NE of village. Formerly a corn mill, it retains its machinery. 3 sets of millstones, a drying kiln and a rare and early turbine in a deep pit. Afternoon teas available.


The Mill on the Green, Ludlow                              SY8 1EG         NGR.:SO507745

10.00-4.00 Free entry. Café. By Dinham Bridge, on E side of river below Ludlow Castle. New building incorporating café on site of former mill. Impressive weir. New waterwheel generating electricity.

Daniel’s Mill, Bridgnorth                                       WV16 5JL       NGR.:SO718918

11.00-5.00 Charges: adults £5, concession & children £4. Parking. Off the B4555, ¾ mile S of Bridgnorth. 3 sets of millstones, powered by very large waterwheel fed by water at 2 levels. In dramatic setting by Severn Valley Railway viaduct. Refreshments available, flour etc. on sale. This is a working mill.



Birchley Mill, Bockleton                                         WR15 8PW     NGR.:SO590644

10.00-4.00 Free entry. Parking. 2½ miles S. of Tenbury Wells. Just over a mile S of Tenbury Wells, at Oldwood Common on the A4112 Tenbury to Leominster road, turn left onto a minor road, and immediately take the left-hand fork. In 1½ miles, just after crossing a stream, the drive to the mill is on the right. Corn mill; complete with wooden and iron machinery. Recently restored waterwheel will be turning.

Churchill Forge, between Kidderminster & Hagley DY10 3LX            NGR.:SO883796

2.00-5.00 Entry £4. Limited parking. At Churchill village, down a short private drive. Water-powered spade and shovel works with original machinery. Two waterwheels will hopefully be turning.


Danzey Green Windmill, Avoncroft Museum     B60 4JR          NGR.:SO952682
10.30-5.00 Charges: adults £8.80, seniors £7.70, children £4.50, family £25. Parking.

2 miles S of Bromsgrove; follow signs to museum. A post windmill restored to working order. Hopefully milling on both days (subject to conditions on day). Tea room; light lunches available.

Shelsley Mill, Shelsley Walsh                               WR6 6RP        NGR.:SO721630

11.00-4.00 Donations. Parking. Follow brown signs for Shelsley Walsh Hill-climb. Small corn mill with two pairs of stones, restored to working condition recently. External overshot waterwheel turning all day. Hopefully milling from 2.00-4.00 on both days (subject to conditions on day).

Forge Mill, Redditch                                                            B98 8HY         NGR.:SP046685

11.00-4.00 Charges: adults £2, children free. Off A441 Birmingham to Evesham road, N of Redditch. Follow brown signs off Sainsbury’s roundabout. Restored water-powered needle scouring & polishing mill. Specially reduced admission charges for the Weekend. A fascinating place; waterwheel will be turning machinery.

Knowles Mill, nr. Bewdley                                      DY12 2LX      NGR.:SO762765

Open all day. Free entry. Parking at Natural England car park near foot of Dry Mill Lane, Bewdley. From car park continue to bottom of lane, then turn left and follow track upstream by brook for ¾ mile. Small corn mill with wheel and machinery; 1 pair of stones. Mill in attractive setting, owned by National Trust.

Brook House, Feckenham                                       B96 6HX        NGR.:SP005614

Available all day. Free access via side gate. Very limited parking on adjacent bridle path. The house is beside the B4090 about 400m W of the turn into Feckenham village. External waterwheel in wheel-pit of demolished needle mill. Waterwheel completed in 2015 will be turning.

POWYS                     OPEN ON SATURDAY & SUNDAY:

Talgarth Mill                                                                        LD3 0BW       NGR.:SO155537

10.00-4.00 Entry £4, children £1, family £9. Please use free car park near roundabout on SW side of Talgarth. Short walk to mill, which is in Square, in town centre. Corn mill, recently restored to working condition as BBC & Big Lottery project. Guided tours with a short walk along the mill leat and riverbank to view the overshot water wheel. Flour on sale. Café, bakery and gift shop on site. Milling at 10:00-12:00 and 2:00-4:00 (water levels permitting).



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Book Launch – On the trail of the Mortimers 12th May

An invitation from the Mortimer History Society, Logaston Press, and Philip Hume to join them on 12 May at 7.30pm at Ludlow Library to celebrate the launch of ‘On the Trail of the Mortimers’, published by Logaston Press.  The book interweaves the history of the Mortimer family with the locations on a tour that explore the surviving physical remains that give an insight into the life and times of the Mortimers, with Leintwardine featured in the book.
There will be copies of the book to purchase at the launch and it will also be an opportunity to discuss the next stages in promoting the trail.

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April Talk: Personal Stories: Two Sisters – Two Nurses at Stokesay WWI Auxiliary Hospital. The one who went to Bosnia and the one who stayed behind.

Caroline Magnus, of Stokesay Court, spoke about the years of the VAD military hospital there, referring to the mass of research information which exists about the hospital and its staff and inmates. During the First World War the widowed owner Mrs Allcroft, a caring Christian woman, offered her house, vacating it herself, for the nursing of wounded soldiers. It was a superior one of its kind, each soldier from the ordinary ranks, having his own room rather than being in a ward. Mrs Allcroft was the commandant and had seven full-time staff including two sisters, the principal subjects of this talk, Lilian and Alice Williams from Shrewsbury. Mrs Allcroft’s compassionate nature is revealed in extant correspondence between her and Lilian after the stillbirth of Lilian’s first child. There is also correspondence between Lilian, who married the gardener Herbert Weeks, and discharged soldiers who evidently appreciated the good treatment they had received both medical and personal, as individuals with dignity. There were six soldiers when the hospital opened in 1915, and 42 according to the registers by 1916.

Lilian’s sister Alice came to the hospital later after having been a PoW in Serbia. She had joined the Scottish Women’s Hospitals, an organisation established solely by women who were prepared to treat wounded men, in spite of rebuffs by the British War Office. Serbia suffered appalling conditions during the war and these staunch women went to provide relief for ‘gallant little Serbia’, taking their own equipment. Alice arrived to work with Dr Hutchinson, the feisty daughter of medical missionaries in India, at the ‘finest field hospital under canvas.’ The conditions they found were dire, with the men receiving a diet merely of bread and thin soup, unsupervised medication by powders, and an outbreak of typhus.

After some time spent setting up the field hospital – all of the medical equipment, tents, and everything else needed to run a hospital was brought by Dr. Hutchinson and her team, and paid for by the Charity – and operating under severe conditions of weather, orders were received to move the hospital to evade attacking forces. They had to discard the equipment but refused to abandon the wounded. The choice was to stay and risk imprisonment or worse, or take on the trek in winter conditions. Alice was one of those who chose to stay not believing she could last the journey, and was captured. She and others were transported to Hungary, 32 women occupying just two rooms, sleeping on straw and living on coffee and bread. The staff and patients who left went on a gruelling trek across mountains, largely on foot. Determined to hold up, Dr Hutchinson wore the Union Jack wrapped around her body, underneath her clothes, and produced it to wave when they reached safety! After Alice was repatriated and had recovered, she returned to Stokesay eventually marrying a patient, John Johnson in 1921.

This aspect of WW1 was a revelation to many of the audience, who knew little or nothing of this part of the War. The press coverage at the time of what the women had endured in Serbia was detailed, reporting on their retreat in mud and snow, and their noted possession of hot water bottles (!), but many of the patients died on the way, and there was considerable suffering. Last year British women including Dr Hutchinson were featured on Serbian stamps but the episode is generally little remembered in British history.

An internet search will tell you more about this:


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